SCIENCE

Science and technology in Iran: In Iran, the percentage of population over the age of six to be considered literate, she has grown rapidly in the last twenty years, touching the 87,6% in the 2016.
Science and technology in Iran, university

Science and technology in Iran: In Iran, the percentage of population over the age of six to be considered literate, she has grown rapidly in the last twenty years, touching the 87,6% in the 2016.
In Iran, elementary education is compulsory by constitutional dictation, and the whole course of education is free except in private schools and universities. The Elementary cycle lasts six years, followed by three years of middle school and three years of secondary school. Children enter First Class at about seven years.

Higher education schools have ancient roots in Iran. In fact, they affirmed themselves strongly in the era of the Sassanids (III-VII century AD), after the establishment of centralized institutes in the cities of Riv Ardeshir and Jondi Shahpour in the year 241 d. Thanks to the importance attributed in those days to medical education, and to the use of the scientific experiences of Greeks, Indians and Persians, these two cities soon became centers of extreme importance and prestige.

With the advent of Islam, starting from the seventh century, and especially from the ninth century, other scientific centers also expanded and developed promoting different specializations, within the framework of an offer of education extended to the entire population.

The maktab ("schools"), the mosques, the clinics, the pharmacies, the universities, the schools of philosophy, the libraries and the observatories, flourished everywhere in the country, and in particular in the major cities: remember for example the Observatories of Maraagheh, Ologh-beyk, Rob'e Rashidi.
In more recent times, in the era of scientific and technological conquests of the West, the Prime Minister of the Qajar Amir Kabir founded a modern institution like the Daar ol-Fonoun (in Persian language دارالفنون - polytechnic institute).

Daar ol-Fonoun was the first institution of higher education in Iran, founded in 1851. It was structured as a polytechnic school that was intended to educate young people in Persian society to medicine, engineering, and military geology. It was a public institution, financed by the state, which over the years was transformed into the University of Tehran. The institute was designed by Mirza Reza Mohandes, who had studied in Britain, is built by architect Muhammad Taqi-khan Memar-Bashi under the supervision of the prince of the Qajar dynasty, Bahram Mirza. The building was equipped with a convention hall, a theater, a library, a cafeteria and a press center. This elite school hosted 287 students in the 1889, and had released 1100 diplomas in the 1891. At that time the staff of the teachers was made up of 16 professors of Iranian nationality and 26 Europeans (most of them French). Eighty years after its opening, Daar ol-fonoun was refurbished to become one of Teheran's most important high schools. After the advent of the Islamic Republic it became the school of teachers and teachers, and after several changes was closed in the 1996. From the 1999 the restoration of the building was undertaken by the Administration of Cultural Heritage of Iran. Today it has become the national educational archives center.

It was the year 1948; shortly thereafter, while many scholars carried out refresher travel abroad and foreign teachers were called to lecture in Iran, new centers of higher education were created in the cities of Tabriz and Urumieh.

The Universities of Teheran, Mashhad, Isfahan and Tabriz officially entered into operation starting from the 1934. With the establishment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, in the 1967, the state and private universities and other centers of higher education received a more uniform structure.

The most prestigious universities are, besides the University of Tehran (1932), Sharif University or Sharif University of Technology, the University of Esfahan (1950) and the University of Shiraz (1945).
Tehran University (UT) (in Persian: دانشگاه تهران, Dāneshgāh Tehrān) It is the oldest and largest educational, scientific and research center in Iran and so called (Mother University). UT It was officially inaugurated in the 1937 as a state university. UT's main campus is located in the heart of Tehran, ie Enghelab Avenue. Other university colleges, faculties, research centers and institutes affiliated with UT are located in other parts of Tehran. The university has over 1.500 professors, 3.500 staff people and about 39.000 students to which 340 foreign students are added; offers 16 types of degrees, 160 master and 120 types of research doctorates.

Sharif University or Sharif University of Technology (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی شریف - Dāneshgāh-e San'ati-ye Sharif) is an Iranian university for engineering and physical science in Tehran.
Under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture and Higher Education and the Ministry of Health, non-profit and non-governmental universities were also founded. Several hundred foreign students are enrolled in the various IS institutes of Iran, most of whom come from Muslim countries. The Ministry provides Persian language courses with Iranian teachers. The same Dicastery manages branch offices of the Iranian universities in other member countries of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (oic).

The annual Kharasmi International Festival (dedicated to Abu Abdollah Mohammad Bin Musa Kharasmi, a famous mathematician who lived between 1987 and 780 AD) is held every year in January: a committee of judges selects the inventors, innovators and researchers of relevance for the awarding of various prizes. Every year, but in August, the International Scientific Olympiad is held in Iran for university students of different Faculties (Theology and Science and Islamic Culture, Persian Language and Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering and Civil Engineering, Mathematics) coming from from the countries of the oic. in addition, the Islamic Nobel Prize is held in Iran, 'Mustafa Prize'.

The Ministry of Culture and IS is a member of UNESCO, of the twnso (Third World Scientific Organizations Network), of the twas (Third World Science Academy), of the comstech (Standing Committee for Scientific and Technological Cooperation), of the comsat (Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South), and is active in cooperation between countries in the South of the world, in particular with other Muslim countries.

According to the statistical data referring to the Academic Year 2017 / 18, the total number of students enrolled in governmental universities reached that year 727.5 thousand units.
The data confirm the survey of the Bloomberg Global Innovation Index for which the Islamic Republic, among the 128 countries of the world, occupies the second place for number of graduates in science and engineering, the fourth in tertiary education, the 41 ° for the general infrastructures and the 48 ° for human capital, rose from 34 ° to 16 ° place for number of scientific publications.
According to Scopus, a database of summaries and citations for research publications, in the 2016, Iran ranked first in the growth of scientific articles production. All while in the 2012 the country occupied only the 10 ° place. Iran's contribution to scientific production has reached 2,4% in 2016 compared to 1,4% in 2012. In 2016, Iran registered a growth of 20% in the preparation of articles published on the ISI website ".

In recent years 2.700 have been born companies with a high innovative content, for a total value of 6,6 billion dollars. At this point, the large industry in the energy, automotive and steel sectors should invest more in innovation, completing the virtuous process underway for years in the country.

Between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries one of the most distinguished figures in science was the math Maryam Mirzakhani, who in the 2014 was the first woman to win the Fields Medal, one of the highest international recognition in the field of mathematics.

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