Brief history of Iran (a fleeting glance)
When discussing the history of Iran, an issue needs to be clarified to better define the investigation framework: we intend to talk about the chronological path of the populations who, from the dawn of civilization to the present day, lived in the current Iranian borders, or wants to describe the events of those peoples who, in some way, considered themselves Iranian and lived in a historical-geographical context that includes the regions of today's Iran and the territories included in the borders of ancient Iran. Some scholars have the beginning of the history of Iran coincide with the arrival of the Aryan peoples in the Iranian plateau, the name of Iran derives from these populations. However, this does not mean that, in earlier times, such a vast territory was uninhabited or devoid of signs of other civilizations. Before the arrival of the Aryan peoples in the Iranian plateau, many other ancient civilizations were born and disappeared, but the legacy left by some of them in this district, even today, produces its fruits under colorful forms. Examples of such civilizations include the following: Sahr-e Sukhte (in Sistan), the Elamite civilization (north of the Khuzestan region), the civilizations of the basin of the river Halil Rud near the city of Jiroft (in the area of Kerman), the urban civilization of the ancient dune of Siyalk (near the city of Kashan), the civilization of Urartu (in Azarbayejan), Ghiyan Tepe (in the area of Nehavand), the civilization of the Mannei in Kurdistan and in Azarbayejan, the civilization of the Cassites in Lorestan.
Current opinion among specialists places the arrival in the Iranian plateau of those peoples who called themselves Aryans - the term 'Aryan' in their language meant 'noble' or 'lord' at the end of the second millennium BC, but on this date there are very divergent opinions.
Thus, the Iranian people possess a national culture and civilization that have formed over the millennia and reached their flourishing peak in the Islamic period. Traces of culture and civilization of this kind can be observed in various forms, for example, in the positivity, novelties and religious genius of this nation. So much so that, from a religious and cultural point of view, Iran has donated its intellectual and moral treasure chest both to the East and to the West, starting with the Zoroaster of Plato's Academy up to the mystery cult of Mithra and, in the same way, it played an important role in the spread of gnosis and Manichaeism, some ideas of which can also be found in Buddhism. Finally, the great legacy of an ancient civilization that has been of vital importance to many countries in Asia and other parts of the world entrusts Islamic Iran with the task of making it worthy of praise.
From a chronological point of view, the history of Iran can be divided into several phases, in some cases this division has elements in common with other cultures and civilizations of the world, while there are periods in which it takes more specific traits that, in other words , can be defined as 'more Iranian periods'. The chronological division common to other cultures of the world embraces the following phases: the Paleolithic, the epipaleolitic, the Neolithic, the three bronze ages, the period of the 'urban revolution', the 'protodynastic' period, the iron age and the era in which the first new governments and state structures began to take shape, with more precise political borders.
The first government of this kind in Iran took shape at the time of the Elamites and not at the time of the Medes or the Achaemenids and, later, under the domination of the Medes a new phase began with more modern state structures. The major dynasties that succeeded each other in Iran are the following: