The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Approved in the 1980 - Revised in the 1989

PART FIVE - National Sovereignty and Derivative Powers

Article 56

Absolute sovereignty over the world and humanity belongs to God, who wanted mankind to be sovereign over his social destiny. No one can deprive any individual of this right, which is of divine derivation, nor enslave this right to personal or group interests. The people will exercise this right according to the following rules.

Article 57

The Sovereign State, in the Islamic Republic, is composed of the Legislative, Executive and Judicial organs, exercised under the supervision of the Wilayat Mutlaq Amr15 and the Imamate of the Community (Ummah), in accordance with the following provisions. The three powers listed are independent of each other. Article 58 Legislative power is the prerogative of the Islamic Assembly, which is composed of representatives elected by the people. The laws passed by the Shareholders' Meeting are transmitted, in accordance with a procedure specified in the following articles, to the Executive and Judicial powers in order for them to be executed.

Article 59

In matters of particular importance, concerning the future of the country, or for topics of special economic importance, legislative power can be exercised through the referendum institute, with the direct appeal to the people's vote. The request for appeal to the referendum must be approved by two thirds of all the representatives of the Assembly.

Article 60

Executive power is exercised by the President of the Republic and by government ministers, except in cases where, in accordance with the present Constitution, such power is a direct prerogative of the Supreme Leader (Rahbar).

Article 61

Judicial power16 is exercised by judicial courts, which must be established in accordance with Islamic norms. They are responsible for the definition and resolution of disputes, the protection of rights, the enlargement and administration of justice and the enforcement of the laws of God.

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