The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Approved in the 1980 - Revised in the 1989

PART THREE - The rights of the people

Article 19

The population of Iran, whatever its ethnic or tribal origin, enjoys equal rights: skin color, race, language or other characters are not grounds for privilege or discrimination.

Article 20

In compliance with Islamic norms, all citizens of the nation, both men and women, are equal in the face of the protection of the law and enjoy all human, political, economic, social and cultural rights.

Article 21

In compliance with Islamic norms, the government has a duty to guarantee women's rights in all areas, and to implement the following: 1. The creation of conditions that favor the development of the woman's personality and the re-establishment of her rights in the material and spiritual sphere. 2. Assistance and support for mothers, especially during the gestation and growth of children, and the protection of children without family protection. 3. The establishment of competent courts for the protection of the existence and stability of the family. 4. The creation of specific insurance for widows, older women and women without family support. 5. The assignment of child protection to mothers who are worthy of it, to protect the interests of children in case there is no legal guardian.

Article 22

Honor, life, property, habitation and work are inviolable rights, except for cases provided for by law.

Article 23

Investigations of personal convictions are not allowed and no one can be prosecuted or investigated because of their opinions.

Article 24

The freedom of the press and the freedom of expression of the ideas in the press are guaranteed, provided that the fundamental principles of Islam or the rights of the community are not offended. The details will be specified by a subsequent law.

Article 25

The interception and control of correspondence, the recording of telephone conversations also in order to make the content public, the interception of telegraphic or telex messages and the revelation of their content, the censorship, the non-delivery or non-transmission of communications , undue listening, espionage and any kind of surveillance are prohibited, except in cases expressly provided for by law.

Article 26

The creation of political parties and associations, professional associations, Islamic religious associations or other recognized religious minorities is free, provided that such parties and associations do not violate or offend the independence, freedom, sovereignty and national unity of the country , neither the Islamic norms nor the foundations of the Islamic Republic. No one can be prevented or forced to be part of such associations.

Article 27

The meetings and parades, by anyone organized, are free, provided they are peaceful and unarmed, and provided they do not violate Islamic principles.

Article 28

Everyone, man or woman, has the right to choose the profession he desires, provided the choice is not in contrast with Islam and the public interest, and does not violate the rights of others. The government is obliged to comply with the needs of society for the various occupations, ensuring all individuals equal opportunities and equal job opportunities in the various branches of activity.

Article 29

Everyone has the right to benefit from social assistance in the form of insurance or other forms in cases of termination of employment, loss of employment, unemployment, old age and disability, lack of family support, accident, accident, need for treatment and medical assistance. The government, applying the law and using the funds coming from general income and the payments of citizens, has the duty to provide for the preparation of welfare services and financial support above, in favor of each citizen of the country.

Article 30

The government has a duty to provide free education to the entire population until the completion of middle school, and to provide free the means of higher education within the limits of the possibilities of the country.

Article 31

The right of every individual and of every Iranian family is to benefit from a home suitable to their needs. The government has a duty to provide for the concrete application of this principle, giving priority to the most needy, especially the peasants and workers.

Article 32

No one can be arrested except by law and according to the prescribed procedures. In case of arrest, the nature and the motivations of the accusation must be immediately communicated in writing to the accused; within the maximum period of twenty-four hours, the preliminary file must be sent to the competent judicial authorities, and the trial proceedings must be initiated as soon as possible. Transgressions to this principle are punishable by law.

Article 33

No one can be exiled from the place where he resides, or is prevented from living in the place of his choice, or forced to reside in a specific place, except in the cases contemplated by the law.

Article 34

The right to request justice is enjoyed by everyone and everyone. Everyone has the right to appeal to the judicial authority by appealing to the competent courts: all citizens of the nation have the right to appeal to such courts; it is not possible to prevent anyone from resorting to the competent courts for each individual case by law.

Article 35

In all courts, each of the counterparties has the right to choose their legal representative. If the economic conditions of the party do not allow the choice of a lawyer of trust, the legal defense must still be guaranteed through an office lawyer.

Article 36

The issuing of a sentence and its execution can only take place by competent courts and in accordance with the law.

Article 37

The law presupposes innocence. No one can be found guilty before the law, unless his guilt is proven in a competent court.

Article 38

It is forbidden to inflict any kind of physical or psychological torture in order to extract confessions or information. It is absolutely forbidden to force a person to furnish evidence, to confess or to take an oath. Trials, confessions and oaths obtained in the aforesaid manner are completely removed from validity. Any transgression of this principle will be prosecuted according to the law.

Article 39

It is forbidden to violate, in any form, the honor or dignity of an individual subject to arrest, incarceration or exile. Failure to comply with this principle is punishable by law.

Article 40

Nobody is allowed, in the exercise of their rights, to harm others or harm the interests of the community.

Article 41

The right to Iranian citizenship is the absolute right of all Iranians. The government can not deprive this right of any Iranian citizen except when the citizen requests it, or when the citizen has taken the citizenship of another country.

Article 42

Foreign citizens can take Iranian citizenship in the cases and according to the procedures established by law. They may be deprived of such citizenship if they take up the citizenship of another State or they themselves request it.

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