The swamp of international fame Gavkhouni is located in the central plateau of Iran, in the regions of Esfahan e Yazd. This important swamp is found where i end Zāyanderud rivers, Tsar Cheshmeh and Izad Khāst and is the main source of the ZāyandeRud river that starts from Chahār Mahāl and Bakhtiāri.
The width of this triangular swamp is equal to 476 km and is located at a distance of 167 km southeast of Esfahān next to the city of Varzaneh and near the desert dunes; its height from the sea level is 1,470 meters and the greater depth reaches the 150 cm.
Around the dry marsh and in general within the radius of 10 km there are no inhabitants. The marsh and the various ponds around it are like a jewel in the heart of the desert and it is among the areas chosen by the first Iranians to live.
The Gāvkhouni swamp in the various writings of the past and even the current has been mentioned in various ways: Gāvkhuni, Gukhuni, Gurkhuni, Gāvkhāne, Gāvkhāni, Gāvkhāni and finally water. In the Dekhodā dictionary, in the explanation of the word Gavkhouni it is written: Gāvkhuni means the house of the cows, since in the past there was the custom that the peasants left their cows to graze in the surroundings of the marsh and this has remained since ancient times .
Another story with a legendary flavor mentions Gavkhouni with the name of Gudkhuni. Some hunters during the hunt have fallen into this swamp and lost their lives. In the vocabulary Anandraj gāv has the meaning of great and khān of well so the expression means large well.
This area welcomes travelers, students, scholars, hunters and nature lovers during the year who come to visit the swamp; although it is possible to reach it from Jarquyeh Aliā and from the village of Khārā, this route is more complicated.
If in Esfahān you are looking for the rarest and most intact landscapes you have to go to the Gāvkhouni swamp which is one of the country's 19 international swamps and is world famous. The difficulty in reaching this swamp made this virgin nature less affected by the changes.
Next to it the confluence of the desert and the water has created a wonderful panorama and total silence has given it an indescribable solemnity.
During the migration of birds in this area you can see migratory birds such as the ardea, the stork, the goose, the goshawk, the duck with a large beak etc..and in the corners of this swamp also animals like the ram , the wild boar, the vulpes rueppellii, the turtle, the viper, the rabbit, the goat, the bats etc..the soils around are so salty that they host a saline vegetation but in the swamp itself there are various types of plants such as the agrostis, types of algae and saplings.