Seyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini
Seyed Ruhollah Mostafavi, born the 24 September 1902 in the city of Khomein, in the vicinity of Arak, known as Seyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, Āyatallah Khomeini and Imām Khomeini, leader of the Islamic revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, is among the greatest Shia "marāj'e taqlid" of the twenty-first century (letter: source of emulation, the highest authority in Shiite jurisprudence).
He completed the preliminary studies which included the sciences of the time, the introductory ones and the level of the theological school, ie Arabic literature, logic, jurisprudence and Islamic principles, among the teachers and the ulemas (theologians and jurists) of Khomein.
He continued his religious formation in the cities of Arak and Qom where, in addition to the study of the remaining topics of "Ketāb al-Mutawwal" (in the science of the meaning of words and rhetoric), he completed the formative level and the khārej (the highest level). of study in Shiite seminaries) of jurisprudence and Islamic principles and was also perfected in other scientific disciplines.
At the same time he devoted himself to learning metrics, mathematics, astronomy and philosophy, reaching the highest levels of theoretical and practical mysticism in six years.
He from the year 1341 (solar Hegira) began an open struggle against the monarchy of the pahlavi in Iran. The regime of the time had him arrested twice and the second time he was exiled first to Turkey and then to Iraq. Khomeini spent fifteen years in exile, almost a year in Turkey, then in Iraq and finally a few months in France.
In the period of exile he continued to teach, to publish books in the theological sciences, to follow the political situation of Iran and with the sending of messages and declarations from afar, he led the Muslims and the opponents of the monarchical regime.
The 12 of the month of Bahman of the 1357 (solar Hegira) returned to Iran, and after the victory of the revolution, until the death was the spiritual guide of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The system of "velāyat mutlaqa-ye faqih" (letter: absolute rule of the jurisconsult), which is a doctrine of religious-political jurisprudence based on Shiite beliefs, is his most important theory.
In addition to jurisprudence and Islamic principles, he had profound knowledge also in Islamic philosophy and theoretical mysticism, was the author of publications and was considered among the ulema of ethics.
He always led a simple and ascetic life. In the period in which he held the office of "marja" and resided in Najaf and also in the last ten years when he was leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, he lived in Jamārān in a modest house.
More than forty works on morality, Islamic jurisprudence, mysticism, philosophy, hadith, poetry and commentaries remain from him. Among these we can mention the following:
- Kashf-e Asrār (The unveiling of secrets, political, religious and social work)
- Tahrir al-Wasilah (Exegesis of the means of salvation, compendium of two volumes on matters of jurisprudence)
- Chehel Hadith (Forty narratives related to the sayings or facts of the Prophet)
- Velāyat Faqih (The Government of Jurisconsultation)
- Jahād-e Akbar (The greatest great fight)
- Manāsek-e Hajj (Rites and ceremonies of the pilgrimage)
- Adāb-As Salat (The rules of prayer)
- Sirr-As Salat (the mystery of prayer)
- Tafsir Sure-ye Hamd (Exegesis of Sura Hamd)
- Talab va Erādeh (Treatise on principles, philosophy and mysticism)
- Sharh-e Do'āye sahar (Description of the dawn prayers, commentary on the invocations recited during Ramadan by Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir)
- Ketāb ul-Baie (5 volumes, on deductive jurisprudence)
- Ketāb al-Tahāra (4 volumes, on the "tahara", letter: purity, purification)
- Istiftā'āt (3 volumes, analysis of the decrees)
- Resāleh Tauzih al-Masā'il (basic manual of religious practice)
- Vasiyyatnāme-ye siāsi elāhi (Political-Divine Testament)
- Sharh-e hadith jonud aqle va jahle (Explanation of the hadith on the ranks of intelligence and ignorance, work on ethics)
- Sahifa-ye Imām (Sahifaye nur), 22 volumes
- Misbāh al-Hidaya ila 'l-khilāfa wa--Wilāya (Systematic and dense treatise on the main themes of gnosis)
- Manāhijul vosool ela elmol-osool (2 volumes, on the terminology of the science of the principles of jurisprudence)
- Ta'alighāt-e ala sharh Fasusul-Hekam wa Misbāhal-ons (marginal comments on the description of the book "Fasusul-Hekam" by the Sheikh Akbar Muhyyaddin Arabi and on the book "Misbāhal-Ons" (description by Muhammad Qanari of the book "Miftah-al -ghaybe "by Qunavi, work on teroretic mysticism)
- -Anvarul-Hedayat fil Taaliqa Alalkefāyat (2 volumes, on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence)
- Al-Rasāyel (formed by some treatises on the science of the principles of jurisprudence such as "al zarar va lāzarār", "estishāb", "ta'ādol" and "tarajih" (criteria for selecting evidence when the testimonies are contradictory) "ejtihād" (deductions from the Quran and the hadith), "taghlid" (emulation) and "taqyeh" (prevarication).
- The collection of lectures, messages, interviews, precepts, Sharia permits (the Sacred Law) and his letters, was initially published in 22 volumes with the title "Sahifa-ye nur" and later in a another collection entitled "Sahifaye Imam" and an attached volume. This work has been translated into English.
Many of his works have been translated into various languages, among those translated into Italian we can mention the following:
- The Islamic government or the judicial authority of the jurist
- The story of the awakening, A political and spiritual biography of Imam Khomeini
- An unknown Gnostic of the 20th century, Formation and works of Imam Khomeini
- The greatest struggle To free oneself from the prison of the ego and ascend to God
- Selected poems (Gozide-e Ash'àr)
- "-Mesbāh al-Hedayah" of the Imam Khomeini
The Institute for the compilation and publication of the works of the Imam Khomeini in Tehrān is active in areas such as the preservation of documents, the compilation and publication of his books and related articles.
Due to the particular role played by Imām Khomeini, many scientific, artistic and multimedia works have been produced about him.
He turned off the 3 January 1989. This day in Iran is an official holiday. His funeral ceremony, which saw the participation of around 10 million people, was considered the most crowded in the world and every year on the anniversary of his death, a memorial is held at his monumental tomb in the presence of Iranian political and religious figures and foreign. His mausoleum, which is highly revered by the Iranians and Shiites, is located in Tehrān.