Morteza Motahhari, born 3 February 1920 in Farimān near Mashhad, known as "master martyr", and "martyr Motahhari", was a Shiite cleric, professor of philosophy and Islamic oratory, commentator on the Koran, thinker, writer and among the theorists of the Islamic Republic system.
After learning the Qur'an and following his elementary studies, Motahari spent four years studying religious sciences in the theological school of Mashhad for four years. Then he moved to Qom to continue his studies and remained for 15 years in the seminary of this city.
Later he went to Tehrān and began his scientific work with teaching in the Sepahsālār school (current University of the martyr Motahhari) and at the University of Tehrān. Morteza Motahhari, despite the seriousness of teaching, was not unaware of social and political issues inside and outside the country, and for some talk given during the reign of the Pahlavi he was arrested and ended up in jail.
He is considered among the important personalities of the Islamic revolution. His relationship and his collaboration with Imam Khomeini (R) were very close and he assumed responsibilities in guiding the Islamic revolution of Iran and after its victory.
He is considered one of the most influential contemporary Iranian religious figures in the explanation of Islamic doctrines in accordance with the daily needs of people and is among the founders ofHosseniyeh Ershād (religious institute). The actualization, the exposition of Islamic doctrines and Shiism are among the peculiarities of Morteza Motahhari's thought.
Of him there remain over 70 immortal works that deal with religious topics in the various areas, philosophical, social, moral, Islamic jurisprudence, and history; among them we mention some of them: "Adl-e Elahi" (Divine justice), "Elal-e gerāyesh be mādigari"(Reasons for the attraction of materialism)"Jahānbini Touhidi"(Unitary vision of the world),"Jāame'e va tarikh"(Society and History),"Modiariat va rahbari dar Islām"(The guide and the magisterium in Islam),"Touhid " (Monotheism), "Seyr-e falsafe dar Islām"(The secret of philosophy in Islam),"Sharh-e Manzumeh"(An exegesis on the synthesis in verses by Mulla Hadi Sabzavari of Mulla Sadra's Theosophical transcendental),"Osul-e falsafe goes ravesh-e reālism (Principles of philosophy and method of realism), "Masaleye shenakht"(The question of knowledge),"Naghdi bar mārxism " (Criticism of Marxism), "Khadamat-e motoghābel Islām va Irān"(Islam and Iran: A Historical Study of Mutual Services),"Falsafe-ye tārikh " (The philosophy of history), "Seyri dar sirey'e nabavi"(A Journey Through Prophetic Conduct)", "Jāzebe va dāfe'eye Ali " (A) (The attraction and repulsion of Ali), "Seiry dar nahj al-balāgheh"(A trip to Nahj al-Balagheh),"Solh Imam Hassan"(A) (The Peace of Imam Hassan),"Hamāse-ye Hosseini"(Epic of Hossein),"Dāstān-e Rāstān"(Anecdotes of pious men),"Nezām-e hoghugh-e zan dar Islām"(The system of women's rights in Islam),"Masaleye Hejāb"(The question of the veil),"Akhlāgh-e Jensi " (Sexual ethics), "Amr be ma'ruf and nahi az mankar"(Promotion of virtue and prevention of vice),"Nazari be nezām-e eghtesādi-e Islām"(An opinion on the Islamic economic system),"Islam goes nyazhaye zaman"(Islam and the needs of the time),"Hekmat-and love them " (Practical wisdom), "Falsafe-ye Akhlāgh " (Ethics), "Ta'lim va tarbiyat dar Islām " (Education in Islam), "Azādi-e ma'navi " (Spiritual freedom), "Ehterām-e hoghugh goes tahghir-e donyā"(Respect for the rights and disdain of the world),"I go to" (And the prayer), "Nehzāt-haye Islāmi dar 100 salt akhir " (Islamic military campaigns in the last 100 years), "Āyande-ye enghelāb-e islāmi-e Irān"(Future of Iran's Islamic Revolution),"Āzādi-e aghide " (Freedom of thought), "Moshkel-e asāsi dar sazemān-e ruhānyat"(Main problem in the establishment of the Shiite clergy),"Rahbari-e nasl-e Javan"(Guide to the Young Generation),"Ravābet-e bein al mellal Islāmi "(Islamic international relations) and "Ashnāii ba Qur'ān"(Understanding the Quran).
Many of his works have been published in various languages including Italian as:
Man and his destiny
Gnosis and Sufism
The occult Imam
Islam and religious pluralism. Divine justice and the destiny of non-Muslims
Life and conduct of the prophet Muhammad
The human being in the Koran
The unitary vision of the world
The guide and the magisterium
Society and history
Women's rights in Islam
The role of women in Islam
Man and faith
After him were written a hundred books, theses, articles on his life and his works, there were numerous conferences to analyze the influence of his thought and his books were the subject of literary competitions.
Master Motahari the 1 May 1979 was assassinated by the Furqān group. His mausoleum is in Qom. The anniversary of his martyrdom in Iran has been called "teacher's day" and regular ceremonies are held to commemorate him.