Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Abu Ja'far Mohammad Ben Mohammad Ben Hasan Jaharudi Tusi, better known as Khāje Nasir Al-Din, was born on February 18, 1201 in Jaharud on the outskirts Qom.
He was a famous poet, scholar, philosopher, orator, expert in Islamic jurisdiction, astronomer, man of letters, mathematician, astrologer, physician, architect and Iranian politician, famous for such titles as "Nasir Al-Din", "researcher of Tus", "master of humanity ”and“ khāje ”. He had a great interest in the study of wisdom and from an early age stood out in mathematics, astronomy and logic and became one of the famous sages of his time. Khāje Nasir Al-Din Tusi was a bright star that shone in the dark horizon of the gods age Mongoli. The Marāgheh astronomical observatory, built under his advice and under his supervision, was similar to a large scientific-research and teaching institute with an attached library containing 40.000 volumes and astronomy instruments where Khāje Nasir Al-Din Tusi, as responsible for each sector the most famous writers of the time regardless of their nationality and religion. Unesco has defined 2008 as the year of the Marāgheh observatory and steps have been taken to register it worldwide in the list of this organization. Some of Nasir Al-Din Tusi's best known works are:
1. Sharh-e Eshārāt Ibn Sina (Commentary on the Eshārāt by Avicenna, critical text on the works of Avicenna)
2. Tajrid al-Eteghād (Summa of the contents of the faith), a commentary on the Shiite doctrines.
3. Al Tadhkira fi elm al-heyyat called Tadhkira Nasiriye (a memorial concerning the astronomical sciences)
4. Tahrir Al-majesti dar heyyat va nojum (Treatise on the work of Ptolemy The Almagest)
5. Akhlāgh-e Nāseri (a work on ethics)
6. Al-ādab Abukheir Lel-valad Al Saghir (a sort of Canzoniere with Persian and Arabic poems)
7. Javaher Al Farā'ez (Religious regulations on inheritance for the division of property between heirs)
8. Asās Al Eghtebās (treatise on logic)
9. Bist bāb dar Astrolab dar olum-e gharibeh (Preface to the works of foreign astrologers)
10. Zij Ilkhāni (Ilkhanic Tables) an important treatise on astronomy
11. Masallasāt koravi (Treatise on spherical trigonometry)
There are also treatises and numerous volumes on logic and astronomy and his writings were published in Latin in the year 1652 in London; a part was also released in Egypt, India and Iran.
Khāje Nasir Al-Din Tusi died the 26 June 1274 in Baghdad, his body was transferred to Kāzemin and was buried near the mausoleum of the seventh and ninth Imams of the Shiites.