Mohammad Taqi Bahar
Mohammad Taqi Bahar, born 9 December 1886 a Mashhad, known as "Malek o-Sho'arā" (Lett: "The king of poets") and under the pseudonym "Bahar", was an Iranian poet, writer, journalist, historian and contemporary politician.
Mohammad Taqi began his studies in the maktab-khāneh (traditional school) from the age of four, reads the Persian and the Quran for six years and has learned the Shāhnāmeh for seven years thanks to paternal help and at this age he composed his first poem in metric of the Shāhnāmeh obtaining an award from his father.
In addition to school, he also learned in parent circles. Bahar from the age of 14 years through his father attended the groups of liberals coming into contact with a new thought and because of this assiduous attendance, he became passionate about constitutionalism and the ideal of freedom.
Paternal efforts not to make him a poet were useless. After the death of his father the responsibility of the family leader fell on him but he continued his literary studies obtaining the title of his father, "Malek-o -Sho'arā'Astān-e Qods" from Mozaffar Al-Din Shah.
At the age of twenty he joined the group of constitutionalists of Khorāsān and his first literary-political work was published in the newspaper "Khorāsān" without a signature; it was followed by other political-critical writings in opposition to the regime of the time.
Later Bahār published the newspaper "Nou-Bahar" (New Spring) which after a period, due to opposition to the presence of Russia's power in Iran, was closed at the behest of the Russian consul.
Bahār immediately founded the newspaper "Tazeh Bahar" (Fresh Spring) and this also closed its doors at the behest of the foreign minister of the time and he was arrested and exiled to Tehran.
Bahār, who had become a member of the National Council Assembly, after a year published the third edition of "Nou-Bahar" in Tehran, founded the academic literary association and also the magazine.
The newspaper was closed and reopened many times. The 1921 coup in Iran forced him home for three months and in this same period he composed one of his most memorable odes (qasides).
After the prisoners of the coup system were released, Bahār was elected again a Member of Parliament. With the consolidation of the Reza Shah regime there was no more favorable ground for the political activity of Bahār and he, consciously, withdrew from politics to devote himself to scientific activity and teaching.
He later ended up in prison for a few months on the charge of secret opposition to Reza Shah, for a year he was exiled to Esfahan and then, with Mohammad Ali Forughi's intermediation, for having participated in Ferdousi's thousand-year feasts, he came recalled to Tehrān.
From that moment on, the most prolific period of Baharí's scientific activity was more widely expressed, particularly in literary and scientific acquisitions, in the correction of texts, in the translation of works from the Pahlavi to the Persian, in the publication of the methodology and in the drafting of the biography of Ferdousi based on the Shāhnāmeh.
At that time he obtained the position of professor of Persian literature. With the fall of Reza Shah, Bahār again dedicated himself to political activity, giving the prints "Nou-Bahar" once again.
He later became a minister of culture for a few months, resigned and two years later entered Parliament as a member of the same. After spending a period of illness, he returned to teaching at the University again.
In those years he became a founding member and head of the Iranian Association of the aspirants for peace. The works of Mohammad Taqi Bahār, divided into two sectors, books and corrections are as follows:
(Books): "Ahvāl-e Ferdousi" (Biography of Ferdousi) "Tārikh-e tatawwor-e she'r-e fārsi" (on Persian poetry), "Tārikh-e mokhtasar-e ahzāb-e siāsi" (Concise History of political parties), "Chahar Khatābe" (Four discourses), "Dastur-e panj astād" (Order of five professors), "Diwān-e she'er" (Songbook of poems), "Zendegāni-e Māni" (Life of Mani), "Sabk-shenāsi" (Methodology), "She'r dar Irān" (The poem in Iran), "Qabr-e Imām Rezā" (The tomb of Imam Rezā) (A), "Ferdousi nāmeh" , "Ayadgār-i zarirān" (correction) "Tārikh-e Bal'ami" (History of Bal'ami), "Tarikh-e Sistān" (History of the Sistān), "Resāle nafs" (Treatise on the Soul), " Shāhnāme-ye Ferdousi "(The Book of the Kings of Ferdousi") and "Mojmal al-tawārik wa'l -qesās, (Concise Stories and Fables), part of the Jawāme al-hekāyāt wa lawāme to Awfi's rewāyāt.
Bahār died in his home in Tehrān on 24 April 1951 and was buried in the Zahir-od-dowleh cemetery in the Shemirān district of Tehrān.