Throughout history, in the field of theology and philosophy of the different religions, various arguments and explanations have been adduced to found or demonstrate the unity and the uniqueness of God understood as supreme, omnipotent and omniscient transcendent principle, cause of the whole reality, unique and exclusive, beyond time, which created the universe and humanity, omniscient and omnipotent, incorporeal, eternal, which guides with its design the world, which governs things with its Law (which man must implement by establishing good and justice), to whom we respond to the end of time and which requires exclusive and total commitment and dedication.
According to Islam, the world is the manifestation of God in itself, as stated by one Hadith:
"It was a hidden treasure, wanted to be known and created the world".
In the same sense, Islamic gnosis compares the universe to a set of mirrors in which God is contemplated in many forms that reflect, at different levels, His Irradiation.
The term tawhid (monotheism) from the lexical point of view means "unity", "uniqueness", and even if in the various sciences (philosophy, theology, ethics etc.) it is used with different meanings, it is actually "different forms, or levels," of units "that are studied and analyzed in them.
According to Islamic doctrine, tawhid it means first of all that there is only one universal order and all the phenomena are correlated and effective on each other and at the same time they need each other. In other words, the universe is governed by a single order and is the effect of a First Cause, ie God. All the entities, effects and phenomena are founded on the First Cause and are established by it, since God is the only one to confer the existence (illah mufida lil-wujud).
Tawheed therefore it means first of all believing in the unity and uniqueness of God, denying the plurality of independent and separate divinities in their lives.
Secondly, tawhid it means to believe that the essence of God is not composed of real or potential parts, a meaning that is usually understood through the "negative attributes" (al-sifat al-salbiyyah). Of the Unit of the Essence two interpretations are given, that is uniqueness (the Essence of God is simple and does not allow any form of multiplicity and combination) e unity (the Essence of God is unique and unparalleled, and there is no thing that is equal or similar to Him).
In the Islamic doctrine of the Shiite school, tawhid it also means believing in the unity of the attributes of the essence with the essence of God himself (tawhid al-sifati) - for which the attributes are not considered as "added" to the essence and every single essential attribute is not distinct from the others +. The attributes are divided into essence attributes e action attributes.+ The attributes of essence are those that God possesses independently of other living beings (life, knowledge, power, etc.) +, whereas action attributes are those that find explanation with the help of other living beings (the sustenance, creation etc.). + In the Qur'an numerous attributes have been referred to God (Wisdom, Life, Eternity, etc.) and are reported as "Names of God", each of which indicates a characteristic existing in God.
+ Tawheed it also means "unity of divine actions", that is to say God is self-sufficient in his actions and does not need any other entity, and every being, every act, every motion, in the universe is founded on the Divine Essence. God is the one and only creator of the universe, and the existence of the creatures of this world depends on God (they are "possible existing"), just as they are in their movements and actions. + They are phenomena of God , so that their actions are also conceived by God as the Cause First of all the causes, the principle originating all the principles. God is the only curator, administrator and supporter of the existing order. ++
Tawheed it also means that creation is not independent of God, so the influences and effects caused by the created entities occur with the permission of God and thanks to his energies and power. In other words, only the essence of God can influence and act independently, that is, without the help or the compulsion of another entity.
From all this conception it follows that nothing and nobody else, besides God, deserves worship (as the "divinity" - Uluhiyyah - it is the necessary condition of being Lord and Creator), that no being is worthy of adoration and submission outside of God +, and that the human being - in his actions, in his aspirations and in general in his life - must trust and hope and rely totally on God alone, and only God must ask for support, help and mercy. "Watch "Friends of Allah will not be afraid, nor will they be afflicted"(Quran, sura Yunus.
In fact, every Muslim in his prayers recites this verse at least ten times a day: "We only love you, and to you we only ask for help"(Quran, sura al-Fatiha).
Recommended readings in Italian:
- AYATOLLAH IBRAHIM AMINI, The ABC of Islam (also online)
- SHOMALI, Discovering Shiite Islam (also online)
- Allamah Tabataba'i "Compendium of Islamic Doctrine"