The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Approved in the 1980 - Revised in the 1989
PART ONE - General principles
The State of Iran is an Islamic Republic that the Iranian nation, based on the traditional faith in the government of truth and justice [revealed] in the Qur'an, following the victory of the Islamic Revolution led by Ayatollah Al-Uzma lmam Khomeini, approved with the National Referendum held 10 and 11 Farvardin 13581 (corresponding to 30 and 31 March 1979), coinciding with 1 and 2 day of Jomadi al-Awwal 1399, expressing positive vote of ratification with a majority of 98,2 % of voters.
The Islamic Republic is a system based on faith in the following principles:
1. Monotheism (expressed in the statement "there is no god but God"), sovereignty and law as belonging exclusively to God, and the need to keep His commandments.
2. Divina2 Revelation and its fundamental role in determining laws.
3. The Resurrection3 and its constructive role in the course of perfecting that guides humanity towards God.
4. Divine Justice in Creation and in the Law.
5. The lMamato4 as an uninterrupted driving function, and its fundamental role in the continuity of the Islamic Revolution.
6. The dignity of man and noble human values, and the free will of the person with the responsibility that accompanies it before God.
The Islamic Republic provides for the establishment of justice, political, economic, social and cultural independence and national integrity through:
to. The continuous interpretative effort (Ijtihad) of qualified Islamic jurisprudes, exercised on the basis of the Koran, of the Tradition of the Infallible (the Prophet, Fatima Zahra and the twelve Imams).
b. The use of science and technology and the results of the most advanced human experiences and efforts made towards the development of men in allowing their further progress.
c. The rejection of all forms of oppression, of their infliction and resignation to them, and the denial of tyranny, of its imposition as of its acceptance.
The State of the Islamic Republic of Iran has the duty to achieve the objectives set out in the Art.2, and will undertake all its efforts to achieve the following goals:
1. The creation of a favorable environment for the growth of ethical virtues based on faith and devotion and the fight against every aspect of vice and corruption.
2. Raising the general level of awareness of the population in all fields through the correct use of print media, mass media and other media.
3. Free education and physical education for all at all levels; the promotion and the wider diffusion of higher education.
4. The enhancement of the spirit of research, enterprise and initiative in all scientific, technical and cultural spheres, as well as in Islamic studies, through the creation of research centers and the encouragement of scholars.
5. The complete rejection of colonialism and the prevention of foreign interference.
6. The cancellation of all kinds of despotism and autocracy, and of any attempt to monopolize power.
7. The guarantee of political and social liberties in the frame of the law.
8. The participation of the entire population in determining their political, economic, social and cultural destiny.
9. The elimination of any unacceptable discrimination and the creation of equal opportunities for all, in all material and spiritual spheres.
10. Establishment of a proper administrative system and the abolition of superfluous government agencies.
11. The full reinforcement of the bases of national defense through the public military lever for the purpose of safeguarding the independence, territorial integrity and the Islamic system of the country.
12. The planning of a balanced and balanced economic system, in accordance with Islamic norms, aimed at building wellbeing, eliminating poverty, and abolishing all kinds of deprivation regarding food, housing, work and health, such as also to the general extension of social insurance.
13. The guarantee of self-sufficiency in the fields of science, technology, industry, agriculture, military affairs and the like.
14. The guarantee of all the multiple rights of citizens, both men and women, of a fair legal protection for all and the equality of all before the law.
15. The expansion and strengthening of brotherhood among Muslims and the cooperation of all the components of the population.
16. The adoption of a foreign policy based on Islamic criteria, the fraternal commitment to all Muslims and the unreserved support of the dispossessed and oppressed peoples of the world.
All civil, criminal, financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political and other laws, and all regulations, must be based on Islamic precepts. This article applies in an absolute and universal way to all the other articles of the Constitution as well as to every other norm and rule, and the Islamic jurists that make up the Guardian Council5 are judges in this matter.
During the time when the Twelfth Imam (may God hasten his parousia) remains in occultation, in the Islamic Republic of Iran the protection of business and the orientation of the people are entrusted to the responsibility of an Islamic jurisperite (faqih) 6 right and pious, knower of his age, courageous, with initiative and administrative skills, which takes this task in accordance with Art.107.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the country's affairs will be managed in accordance with the votes cast by the population either through the election of the President of the Republic, Representatives in the Islamic Assembly7, members of the Councils, or through referendums as provided for in other articles of the Constitution.
In compliance with the provisions of the Qur'an, "For their business," (42: 38), and "Suggest with them" (3: 152), the main decision-making and administrative bodies of the country are the Councils: the Islamic Assembly, Regional Councils, Provincial Councils, Municipal Councils, Neighborhood, District, Village, etc. The competences, the formalities of constitution, the jurisdictional areas and the responsibilities of these Councils are established by the present Constitution and by the laws deriving from it.
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the exhortation to do good and dissuade from doing evil is a duty that belongs to individuals in their mutual relations and in the mutual relations between them and those who govern them. The conditions, limits and nature of this duty are established by the law, as prescribed by the Holy Quran: "And believers, men and women, are allied with one another, unite in good and prevent evil" (9: 71 ).
In the Islamic Republic of Iran the independence, freedom, unity and territorial integrity of the country are inseparable, and their protection is the responsibility of the government and each member of the Iranian nation. No individual, group or authority has the right to harm even the least political, cultural, economic or military independence and territorial integrity of the country under the pretext of freedom, and no authority has the right to abolish legitimate freedoms by using the pretext of wanting to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of the country, not even resorting to the promulgation of laws and regulations.
Since the family is the fundamental unit of Islamic society, all laws, regulations and programming must be aimed at facilitating the formation of families, safeguarding the sanctity of the family institution and strengthening family ties, according to the law and Islamic ethics.
According to the Koranic verse "Yes, this Community is one Community and I am your Lord. Adore Me! "(21: 92), all Muslims constitute one community and the government of the Islamic Republic has a duty to create a general political line based on the agreement and solidarity of the Muslim peoples, and to engage without interruption to favor the realization of the political, economic and cultural unity of the world of Islam.
The official religion of Iran is the Islam of the Sciita Giafarita Imamita8 school, and this article is not subject to change over time. The other Islamic9 schools, such as the Hanafita, the Shafi'ita, the Malekita, the Hanbalita and the Zaidita are considered with absolute respect, and their followers are totally free to profess, teach and perform the acts of worship envisaged by their respective Canons, and in accordance with their religious jurisprudence, their private legal contracts (including marriage, divorce, inheritance, wills) and related disputes are recognized by law in the courts. In every region where the followers of the aforementioned schools constitute the majority, the local regulations, within the power limits of the Councils, will comply with the respective regulations, in the safeguard of the rights of the followers of other schools.
Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians are the only recognized religious minorities, and within the limits of the law they are free to perform their own religious rites and ceremonies, and in private legal contracts and religious education they are free to operate according to their own norms.
According to the Koranic verse "God does not forbid you to treat kindly and righteously those who have not fought against your religion and have not driven you out of your homes: God certainly loves the righteous" (60: 8), the Government of the Republic Islamic of Iran and all Muslims must act against non-Muslims with kindness, justice and fairness, respecting their human rights. This principle is valid only for those who do not conspire and do not act against Islam and against the Islamic Republic of Iran.